by Huajun Cao and Hongcheng Li
Carbon emissions of a job-shop manufacturing system consist of processing and non-processing carbon emissions. Processing carbon emissions are caused by the processing process of machines used for the operation of a job. To select the most suitable one from all alternative machines for the operation provide a chance to reduce this type emission. Non-processing carbon emissions are caused by idle (unload) state process of all individual machines. To generate the optimal operation sequences also provide a chance to less these non-processing emissions. Considering both types of emissions, a two stage carbon efficiency optimization model using two optimal strategies is proposed.